The abdomen is one of the most important parts of the human body. Important parts of the body such as the complete digestive and excretory system are located there. The abdominal muscles play different vital functions inside the body. It supports in the breathing process being the accessory muscles which are used for respiration. Even the abdominal muscles serve the role of a protector for the vital inner organs of the human body. In combination, with the human back muscles, abdominal muscles provide posture support which is important for defining the abdominal structure.
Three Layers of the Abdomen
You will find three layers to cross to reach the interior area of the abdomen. The 3 layers are:
- The muscle.
- The superficial fascia.
- The skin.
The abdomen itself, hold inside it some more human organs which fall under the category of prime organs for healthy life. These organs are important and need special protection and care and so remain well protected inside the abdomen. If you observe the abdomen from the front view of the body, you will find that it is again subdivided into 9 main regions. It looks like a criss-cross board having several lines which are passing both horizontally a well as vertically. Each of these sections houses different human organs in them. Take a look at the 9 sections and the organs in housed there:
- Right hypochondrium –Houses right kidney, Small intestine, gallbladder, and liver
- Left hypochondrium – Houses left kidney, Pancreas, colon, and spleen
- Epigastrium – Houses Adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, duodenum, liver, and also stomach
- Right lumbar region – Houses Right colon, gallbladder and liver
- Left lumbar region – Houses Left kidney and descending colon
- Umbilical region – Houses Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and umbilicus
- Right iliac fossa – Houses Cecum and appendix
- Left iliac fossa – Houses Sigmoid colon and descending colon
- Hypogastrium – Houses Female reproductive organs, sigmoid colon, and urinary bladder
In case you are finding the above 9 regions bit complicated to understand then you can divide it with 2 lines with 4 quadrants.
1st quadrant or Right upper quadrant
Doctors access this region for checking tenderness as well as for local pain because of infection or damage of organs like gallbladder, colon (hepatic flexure), duodenum, liver, and also an upper region of the pancreas. As per medical finding Pain and tenderness which occur in this region are mostly due to conditions like cholecystitis, hepatitis, and even to show the sign of development of a peptic ulcer.
2nd Quadrant or Right lower quadrant
In this quadrant, you will find organs like female reproductive organs which includes right fallopian tube and the ovary, colon (upper portion), right ureterpenus, and also the appendix. In case you are facing pain in the abdomen due to appendicitis infection, the location of, the pain and tenderness will be found in the 2nd lower quadrant.
3rd quadrant or Left upper quadrant
The 3rd quadrant is occupied by different other parts of the colon. It includes the bottom part and splenic flexure, in addition to the adrenal gland as well as the left portion of the kidney. Here you will see the spleen, pancreas, stomach, and left section of the liver.
4th quadrant or Left lower quadrant
You will find this area located right below the umbilicus plane. In a female body, the left fallopian tube, ovary, and left uterine tube are located. In case of both male and female body, you will see the presence of sigmoid as well as the colon. If you are facing any abdominal pain, then chances are high that the pain is arising from your lower left quadrant only. Such type of pain can be the sign or symptom of many medical conditions, which includes colitis, diverticulitis or ureteral colic. Pelvic inflammation because of pelvic inflammatory disease and presence of ovarian cysts can be the reason of the pain coming from this area. The pain can also be due to tumors growth with cancers, which include both colons as well as ovarian cancer.
Above are the organs which are located in the abdomen region of the human body in different regions or quadrants. Medical students during their MBBS studies get the scope to learn in detail about the different regions, sections, and organs located in the abdominal region.